b'In a previous article on the 1901 census I gave asize that was characteristic of the late Victorian period. breakdown of the occupations, which seemed to giveIn 1851 there are no examples given of men and more detail, such as Waggoner on farm or Groomwomen co-habiting - they were always shown as or Shepherd. The 1851 census is more general in itshusband and wife. description of occupations, so in order to compare theThere are a number of very young workers in two I have grouped together some occupations from1851, for example Elizabeth Empson was only 10 the 1901 census. years old and has an occupation of servant to the Schoolmaster. There is also much more of a reliance Table 2: A Comparison of occupationson the head of the household for income. In 1851 in 1851 and 1901 the wife or children seldom had an occupation listed, and there were 11 women who listed their occupation Occupation 1851 1901 as Farmers Wife whereas in 1901 there was only Farmer 20 21 one. The problem with this reliance on the head of Agricultural Labourer 101 80* household was that if they fell ill and died early, it left the rest of the family in a desperate position; in 1851 General Servant 27 27* there were 12 paupers, and only 2 in 1901. There Scholar 32* 60 are examples of families fostering young children; Pauper 12 2 there are 5 children under the age of 10 who have a different surname to the head of the household and Blacksmith (including apprentices) 10 3 whose relationship to the head of the household is Joiner / Carpenter (including8 4 lodger.James Cook age 18 had his occupation apprentices) listed as Idiot and in the notes made by the Tailor (including apprentices) 4 3 enumerator he was marked as dumb; he was being looked after as a lodger by Hannah Craggs who was Butcher (including assistants) 2 3 herself a PauperShopkeeper/Grocer/Tobacconist/ 4 4 The oldest person in the village, Thomas Tipling Draper aged 84, is not listed as retired, in fact his occupation Innkeeper/Publican 3 2 is Agricultural Labourer! The most interesting house Carrier 3 9 was that of Thomas Thrackray whose occupation is Lodging House Keeper. He had a mixed bunch of Rabbit/Mole/Rat Catcher 1 3 tenants - Joseph Bossal, a bricklayer aged 20, born Shoemaker 4 3 in Bedfordshire, James Steward a rope maker from * Grouped together for comparison Liverpool aged 26, Richard and Mary Carty from Dublin in Ireland, both aged 28, Richard being an The number of farmers changes little fromAgricultural Labourer (see article in Bulletin 4, page census to census, there always seem to be 1520.10, by Keith McWilliam on Irish farm workers) and In fact, Domesday Book of 1086 lists 15 farmersJohn Hale aged 30 born in Gate Helmsley whose with 7 ploughs. This carried on until the 1950soccupation is Fiddlemaker.after which the numbers started to decline. Today,The farmers were the most important employers there are no active farms left in the village. In 1901and drove the local economy by giving work to the the number of agricultural labourers had started toancillary occupations of Blacksmith, Carrier, Joiner decline as machinery began to be used on farms.etc. The number of workers employed depended Matthew Ripley had introduced his traction engineson the size of a farmers own family and the number and mechanised threshing machines. The numberof sons he was able to employ. Thomas Nattris was of blacksmiths was also reduced because of thefarming 236 acres and only needed one agricultural innovations. There were more carriers in 1901 aslabourer as four of his sons were employed on his trade, transport and the quality of the roads started tofarm, whereas John Waite had no sons of working age improve. on his 118 acres and had to employ three agricultural In 1851 the number of scholars listed was 32,labourers.but this includes 4 children at Callis Wold who wereThe most impressive list of occupations was listed as Scholar at Home - these were all the girls.James Jebson (age 56 and born in Stockton) who Also living at Callis Wold was Anne Jackson who waswas a Master Blacksmith, a farmer of 20 acres, and employed as Governess to the girls. All the boys atan Innkeeper,employing 2 labourers on the farm, 2 in Callis Wold were listed as Scholars so presumablythe blacksmith trade and 2 blacksmiths apprentices. they were allowed to attend school in the village. InAccording to trade directories he also was the 1901 the number of children listed at school was aReceiving house for post and a Wheelwright. William remarkable 60; this may reflect the increase in familyCoates age 52 and Williamson George Wilson age 28 118 BULLETIN 8'