b'accompanies the enclosure award and can be traced, approximately, as the dividing line shown on the photograph. The enclosure plan is represented in Bulletin3 in an item entitled Bishop Wilton Open Field System Prior to 1772.2.The line running from C to D follows the courseof an old track or hollow way that cuts across a number of paddocks behind plots that front onto the main street. It is marked up to the point at which the remains of ridge & furrow start to become ill-defined.3.Ridge & furrow features at 1 are curtailed by theline at C to D at one end and by the back lane at the other. They appear to predate the hedge lines that separate one paddock from another. They are particularly wide.4.Blocks of ridge & furrow at 2 and 3 run at rightangles to each other and are separated by the line shown. They are instances of furlongs or collections of strips. The full length of the strips in 3 is cut in halfby Thorny Lane which was laid out at enclosure time; on another aerial photograph the strips can be seen to continue into a field on the other side of the lane.5.Blocks of ridge & furrow at 2 and 4 butt up toone another and are separated by the line that marks the Open Field boundary.6.The fields at 5, 6 and 7 have had their ridge& furrow features removed by continuous modern deep ploughing. The ridge & furrow features remain visible in places where the land was used as pasture and not ploughed after enclosure.7.All the ridge & furrow features in this examplefollow the characteristic reversed-S curve to differing extents. Figure 2Ridge & Furrow: What is it? On finishing one length of ploughing, the plough Figure 2 represents a strip in the open fields. Thereteam need to exit the strip so that they can line up is a headland at both ends that allows the ploughmanon the headland ready to do the U-turn. Going onto and his team of eight oxen (harnessed in pairs) tothe headland at right angles would necessitate a manoeuvre on commencing and on finishing eachwider headland or the risk of trampling on strips in a length of the strip. neighbouring furlong. This is the reason for the curving Ploughing is started in the centre of the strip withshape traversed with each pass. It is a double curve the plough slicing and throwing the earth to the right.because the direction of exiting from the strip has to At the opposite end the plough team assemble on thebe the same at each end. It is a reversed-S shape headland and do a U-turn to recommence ploughingbecause the dynamics of ploughing and the forces alongside and parallel to the first pass. Again the earthinvolved make the curve to the left more effective is sliced and thrown to the right (into the middle). (evidently) with a plough that throws the earth to the Ploughing continues in this clockwise, spiralright (see the explanation under Why is it the shape it direction until the outside edges of the strip areis?).reached. When first accomplished there will only beRidge & Furrow: Why does it exist at all?a very slight ridging, with slight furrows at the outsideA popular belief is that the ridging of land provided edges of the strip. Continuous ploughing in the samea greater surface area on which to grow crops. But way over the years accentuates the ridge and thethere are two more likely reasons why it became furrows so prevalent. One is that the ridges shed rain more 258 BULLETIN 14'