b'The Turnpike TrustKate Prattupkeep and improvement, not the people who lived beside them. So gradually, in a piecemeal fashion, the whole national network of roads was privatised. The first toll-road was set up on the Great North Road in 1663, by an Act of Parliament, whereby a group of trustees was authorised to erect tollgates, collect tolls, appoint surveyors and undertake road repairs. Our local Turnpike Trust was formed in 1765. It actually covered 2 sections of road, that part of the A1079 from Kexby Bridge to Grimston Bar, and then the A166 from the Smithy at Grimston Bar to a Statute Labour certain gate at the top of Stonedale A print by George Walker from Costumes of Yorkshire, 1814 Wold, which point can be seen on the 1854 Ordnance Survey map, just east of Wayrham Farm (see below) V illages were linked to each other through a a total of about 18 miles. The roads were said network of footpathsa lot of which are still into be very ruinous and narrow, much used by heavy existence. Some of these developed into roads, butcarriages, and their efficient repair impracticable by also at the time of the Enclosure Acts in the 18thstatute labour.century a lot of new roads were created. There were tollbars at Gate Helmsley (not why There also existed a wider network throughoutit was called Gate Helmsleythat is a signifier of a the countrythe Kings Highway. The A166 whichRoman road), Stamford Bridge and Skirpenbeck. runs along the northern edge of the parish of BishopI have not seen any reference to there being a bar Wilton, originally a Roman road, formed part of thisat the eastern endbut I suppose there must have national network of roads and from 1555 the dutybeen.of keeping it clear and usable was imposed on theLocal landowners, gentry and clergy contributed parish. The parish was run from the Church Vestry,to turnpike schemes, as well as larger investors who and each year officers were electedChurchwardens,for many years made a lot of money out of such an Overseer of the Poor, a Constable and a Surveyor.investments. All put up money, and took a moderate The job of the Surveyor, who, like the other officers,return, the balance to be used for road repairs.was unpaid and untrained and usually only in theSide roads would have toll bars erected, with a job for a year, was to supervise the parishioners inwicket gate for pedestrians who didnt have to pay, their enforced Statute Labour: each able-bodedand a toll keepers house often with a jutting-out person, man and woman, had to work on the roadwindow to give good vision up and down the road. for 4 consecutive days a year, and in 1563 this wasPlans for such a building at the Skirpenbeck junction increased to 6 days! It was the responsibility ofstill exist, showing a building of approximately 12 x local landowners to provide the equipmenttools,20 feet, with a tollgate 12 feet wide, and a wicket carts, stone etc - but the labour was everybodysgate of 5 feet. There was a similar side gate at the responsibility. The only way to get out of it was toend of the lane from Youlthorpe, which was evidently find another person to fill your place, presumably bysomething of a nuisance locallyan alternative track paying them, but most people would not be able tofrom Youlthorpe to Bugthorpe had become quite well afford to do that. As can be imagined, this system wasused; reference is made to it in a Surveyors Report of not always very successful, as most people were not1894 saying it appears to have been made to evade very committed to the ideathough I feel sure thatthe Toll Bars. It was a finable offence to use the road this was not the case in Bishop Wilton! and evade paying a toll but it was obviously fair game As travel became more common in the 17thto use an alternative route.century the idea increasingly took hold that it ought toThere was a recognised system of exemptions for be the people who used the roads who paid for theirlocal traffic, the military, people going to vote, carrying BULLETIN 7 109'