b'The Apportionment of Tithes for Bolton TownshipSteven OliverAnd verily they that are of the sons of Levi,expensive crops, when the church, which lays out no whoreceivetheofficeofthepriesthood,have part of the expense, is to share so very largely in the a commandment to take tithes of the peopleprofit. 2according to the law.Hebrews 7:5 Commutation of tithes often occurred at the time of land enclosure, and the 1757 enclosure award T he payment of tithes to support the churchfor Bolton assigned annual tithes to the landowners and clergy is first recorded in England in theWilliam Read (3 9s), Richard Mosey (3 12s), William 9th century, and during the medieval period wasHatton (5 2s 6d), John Hessay (20s) and John predominantly made in kind.Tithes comprised theHerbert (4s), payable to John Banks Horsley Esq. of payment of an agreed proportion of the output ofBawtry, then Lord of the Manor of Bolton.cultivation and were payable on: all things actuallyCommutation of tithes continued piecemeal across arising from the ground and subject to annual increaseEngland into the 19th century. Then with the Tithegrain, wood, vegetable etc. [predial tithes];all thingsAct of 1836 the government initiated a nationwide nourished by the groundthe young of cattle, sheepprocess, resulting in all tithes being converted to etc. [mixed tithes]; the produce of mans labour,a rent charge linked to the price of corn. Local particularly the profits from mills and fishing [personallandowners (who paid the tithe) and tithe-owners tithes]. 1 could either reach an agreement or, if this was not However, not all tithes were paid to the clergy,possible, an award was made by the Tithe Act as the dissolution of the monasteries brought bothCommissioners. The award was recorded as a written church land and some tithes into lay ownership. Mostapportionment setting out: the ownership, occupiers, of these tithes were great tithes (corn, grain, hay andacreage, state of cultivation and the new rent charge wood), rather than the small tithes (all other predial,payable for all land in the area. The boundaries of land mixed and personal tithes) which tended to remainwere also surveyed and set down in an accompanying with the vicar of the parish. map.There was a general trend for tithes to beThe tithe apportionment in Bolton was reached by converted (commuted) from in kind payments to theagreement and signed on the 31st May 1841. Several equivalent of a rent charge, in part because of greatercopies of the award now exist with local copies at the convenience. But by the 18th century it was alsoBorthwick Institute in York, 3and East Riding Archives. 4being argued that tithes in kind were a disincentiveThe original award is held at the National Archives at to agricultural development. In his 1776 An InquiryKew. 5into the Nature And Causes of the Wealth of NationsThree tithe owners are identified for Bolton: Adam Smith stated,the Reverend Joseph Shooter, 6vicar of the Parish The tithe .is always a great discouragementof Bishop Wilton, William Mosey, yeoman of both to the improvements of the landlord and to thePocklington, 7and Matthias Wharram a farmer at cultivation of the farmer. The one cannot venture toEllerton. 8There were twenty landowners in the make the most important, which are generally thetownship (listed in Table 1) with holdings varying from most expensive improvements, nor the other to raiseover 200 acres to less than one rood (a quarter of an the most valuable, which are generally too the mostacre).Mary Taylor owned Bolton Hall and the land 1The National Archives . Domestic Information Research Guide 41Tithe Records. [http://www.national archives.gov.uk/catlogue/RdLeaflet.asp?sLeafletID=100, accessed 21/3/2007]2Adam Smith. An Inquiry into the Nature And Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Book 5, Chapter II, Article I.3York University, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research. Bolton Tithe Apportionment: ref. TA 32854East Riding of Yorkshire Archives and Records Service. Bolton (Bishop Wilton) Tithe Apportionment andMap: ref. TA/75The National Archives. Bolton Tithe Award: ref. IR 29/41/23, Bolton Tithe Map: ref. IR 30/41/236A Joseph Shooter, born c. 1801, is recorded in the 1841 census for Bishop Wilton [HO107/1216/21;Folio: 14; Page: 22] but his occupation is recorded as Clerk. However this is changed to Vicar inthe 1851 census[HO107/ 2357; Folio: 54; Page: 14].7 Wm Mosey born c.1781 is enumerated in the 1841 census in Pocklington, living by independentmeans on South Parade with Ann Mosey aged 60 (presumably his wife) and Mary Mosey aged8 [HO107/1219/ 19; Folio: 48; Page: 23].8The 1841 census return for Ellerton Priory (just North of Bubwith) records Matthias Wharram as a farmeraged c.55yrs [HO107/ 1218/15; Folio: 7; Page: 10]312 BULLETIN 16'