b'to the use of a potters wheel, clay would have been rolled out and then coiled round to form the body of the pot. From the outside and from the inside, the pot would then have been hand-smoothed and flattened slightly to form the overlapping arrangement represented by the cross-section below.As mentioned in a previous article, these pieces and the others they where found with are of Late Iron Age date, approximately 2000 years old. They were found at a level where they had obviously been continually disturbed and abraded by cultivation and separated from each other. When Above Left: The two sherds fitted together showing thereunited they disclosed the method of identification they were given on being found their manufacture!Above Right: Cross section of the two pieces pictured oppositeTithe Disputes in Bishop WiltonKate PrattT ithing was often seen as a very unfair tax, resentedone-fifth of the annual rent of arable land and were by the poor, resisted by many dissenters as itusually payable to the Lord of the Manor, but also the went to maintain the established church, and a directsmall tithes which were usually paid direct to the tax on farming which particularly penalised the moreVicar, and concerned chickens, calves, pigs, geese, go-ahead, as the more productive their methods, thebees, eggs and fruit from the garden. The actual more they had to give as tithe. physical handing over of these itemsone in every The payment of a tithe caused a lot of petty10 eggs produced, one in every 10 apples picked squabbling, but occasionally the tithe owners wouldfrom your treemust have been problematic. Do you turn to the law to try to claim their just payment,deliver a tenth of the milk you produce every day, or though this was often a long-drawn out and expensivedo you hand over the total production every 10 days? effort. There are several early examples of suchDo you take it to the Vicarage or do you leave it in the disputes concerning unpaid tithes to the Lord of thechurch porch? It is easy to see that there was a lot Manor of Bishop Wilton references to which are heldof opportunity for people to avoid the tax, or to make in the Cause Papers at the Borthwick Institute at themischief with paying it.University of York: Eventually a system was worked out of paying a 1598 Richard Hildyard v Thomas Smithtithe certain amount of cash annually instead of the actual of hay from the West Ings goods in kind, called a composition or a modus. This 1615 Sir William Hildyard v Hugh Bethell, gent amount varied from parish to parish, as did the actualtithe of herbage in Forty Shilling Close items which could be tithed. and Saltbeck Close in Belthorpe, and The payment of tithes, whether as goods in kind wool from SouthIngsor as a modus, often constituted a large part of the 1617 Richard Hildyard v Robert Thompson & income of a Vicar, and led to many disputes. A newly Leonard Sothebyhay from the appointed Vicar would often find that the modus had WestIngs been calculated many years earlier at a rate fixed for 1636 Nicholas Seamer v Thomas Bensona long term, and that the actual rate should be very tithe of lambs and wool from High and much higher. It would sometimes be the very person Low Greenwick who had appointed him to his position who was guilty of this underpayment, which left the Vicar in an The payment of tithes must have been aimpossible bindanyway he couldnt afford to go to complicated affair; it affected not only the great titheslaw against a large landowner.of grain, hay and fruit, which were worth as much asIn1749 the Rev Mr John Dealtary of Bishop Wilton BULLETIN 14 253'