b'Tithe Apportionments and Maps for the Parish of Bishop Wilton 1841Derek H. WilemanTithes Enclosure ActsFor almost 1000 years, to the passing of theDuring the period when parliamentary enclosure Tithe Redemption Act in 1936, tithes were thewas taking place, the opportunity was taken in some heaviest direct tax on farming. They were regardedareas to commute the tithe, and plots of land were as discriminating against those who earned a livinggiven to the tithe holder in lieu of an annual tithe.The fromthe land, and a tax not shared by trades people, owner gained his income from the land.An example manufacturers, wage earners, nor foreign competitors.of this in the Bishop WiltonEnclosure Award of 1772 Tithes amounted to one tenth of the annual yield ofis where the commissionersmade the following products of the land. There were three kinds: award in one case:1.Predial Tithes:payable on corn, hay, wood,We do also award and assign unto the said fruit and other crops. Matthew Smithfifty five acres one rood and twenty 2.Mixed or Agistment Tithes:payable oneight perches of Land WHICH said allotment is animal products, such as lambs, colts, wool,in lieu compensation and satisfaction for the remaining milk, eggs and honey. third part of the said moiety or half part of the before 3.Personal Tithes:payable on clear gains of amentioned tythes and Ecclesiastical dues lately persons labour, generally levied only on profitspurchased by the said Matthew Smith of Edward from milling and fishing. Norton EsquireSome aspects of farming were exempt from tithe payments. The Tithe Commutation Act of 1836Great Tithes were paid to the rector of aTithes had been a source of grievance and parish.He might live in the parish, or be some kindirritation for centuries.Dissenters, such as Methodists of absentee parson.In the latter case he wouldand Quakers,did not like giving to the state church, normally appoint a vicar to do the parish duties.Thethe Church of England.Tithe payments were a main Vicarial, or Small Tithes,included all the tithescause of the poor state of agriculture, it was argued. except grain, hay and wood, which were reserved forFarmers and land owners were not prepared to invest the rector. money in developing land and farming techniques if Across the country there were variations in howsome of their profits were to be taken as tithes.The tithes were classified and collected, and it can be shown that there were many local tithing customs.When the monasteries were dissolved, the tithes belonging to the monasteries and to rectoriesIn the Enclosure Award of 1772, provisions for were vested in the Crown, and many were soldthe commutation of tithes took account of two on to laymen.These tithe owners were calledseparate instances:Impropriators.Impropriate livings were unevenly1.Tithes applicable to the land beingdistributed over the country.In Yorkshire aboutenclosed at the time.63% of parishes were impropriate.This was a high2.Tithes applicable to land that had proportion compared with some other parts of thepreviously been enclosed in the country. South Field in 1726.In the first instance, land was allotted in lieu of Paying Tithes tithes. In the second instance, because the land A tithe owner had the right to claim the tithe inhad already been divided, annual rents were kind, as crops andanimals. Tithe barns were builtallotted.to store some of these, especially corn.By the midThe two beneficiaries of these provisions were 17th century many tithes were collectedthroughthe Lord of the Manor (and Impropriator), locally negotiatedmoney payments rather than inMatthew Smith, and the Vicar, the Reverend kind.Other tithes were paid by giving land to the titheJohn Dealtry.owner, who was able to generate income from thePrior to Matthew Smith becoming Lord of land. There were always arguments betweentithethe Manor, the tithes he acquired were split owners and tithe payers as to the value and naturebetween Richard Darley (two thirds) and of tithes.Some of these disputes were heated, andEdward Norton (one third).much time and effort was wasted in trying to solve them.218 BULLETIN 13'